Day: June 15, 2015

Defining Addiction?

    “Addiction is a primary, chronic disease of brain reward, motivation, memory and related circuitry. Dysfunction in these circuits leads to characteristic biological, psychological, social and spiritual manifestations. This is reflected in an individual pathologically pursuing reward and/or relief by substance use and other behaviors. Addiction is […]

A Neuro-anatomical Model

    A Neuro-anatomical Model Altered stress systems progressively impact on dopaminergic networks to cause the neuro-anatomical “brain signatures” of addiction (17). Reward – stress prgressively activates the dorsal striatum (DS) (87) and substance-related cues elicit dopamine release in DS (88) in line with addiction severity, suggesting the […]

A Combined Stress and Dopamine Model of Addiction

  Towards a psycho-neuro-endocrinological theory of addiction Our model posits that increasingly excessive levels of stress impact on dopaminergic systems to produce neuro-anatomical alterations in the brain which reflect addiction severity and increasingly limited cortical and explicit control over behaviour.  The brain progressively “implodes” towards sub-cortical, compulsive and […]

A Critique Of the Stress Model

  Theoretical challenges to the negative reinforcement model   The preoccupation-anticipation phase, seen as one of dopaminergic positive reinforcement, can be critiqued in terms of a “premorbid allostasis” – although clinical and epidemiological studies suggests a dose-dependent relationship between accumulated lifetime adversity and addiction risk (8, 37-40) and […]

Stress Based Model of Addiction

  Negative Reinforcement Whereas positive reinforcement occurs when presentation of a drug increases the probability of a response to obtain the drug, negative reinforcement occurs with alleviation of an existing aversive state or alleviation of a drug-generated aversive state (e.g., withdrawal).   Negative reinforcement models (17, 18) centre […]

A Critique of the Dopamine Model

  Theoretical challenges to positive reinforcement models:-   Lack of evidence for increased brain levels of dopamine in the addiction cycle – the increase in dopamine receptors, that the IS model proposes, is not demonstrated in human studies which demonstrate down-regulation of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system in alcohol, […]

A Dopamine Model of Addiction

There are two main dopamine models of addiction. 1. one that says dopamine increases in the addiction cycle leading to a “pathological wanting” 2. That dopamine decreases so that addicted people are seeking more dopamine. As you can see these two models are diametrically opposing and seemingly irreconcilable. 1. […]

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