Month: June 2015

Diagnosis: Towards Validity and Consistency

Translating Accurate Diagnosis into Effective Treatment, Part Two The way addicts and alcoholics themselves talk about their condition (“an emotional disease,” “a parasite the feeds on our emotions”, “an emotional cancer,” “a fear based disease”) is rarely considered in theories of addiction. Within the frame of the current […]

Defining Addiction?

    “Addiction is a primary, chronic disease of brain reward, motivation, memory and related circuitry. Dysfunction in these circuits leads to characteristic biological, psychological, social and spiritual manifestations. This is reflected in an individual pathologically pursuing reward and/or relief by substance use and other behaviors. Addiction is […]

A Neuro-anatomical Model

    A Neuro-anatomical Model Altered stress systems progressively impact on dopaminergic networks to cause the neuro-anatomical “brain signatures” of addiction (17). Reward – stress prgressively activates the dorsal striatum (DS) (87) and substance-related cues elicit dopamine release in DS (88) in line with addiction severity, suggesting the […]

A Combined Stress and Dopamine Model of Addiction

  Towards a psycho-neuro-endocrinological theory of addiction Our model posits that increasingly excessive levels of stress impact on dopaminergic systems to produce neuro-anatomical alterations in the brain which reflect addiction severity and increasingly limited cortical and explicit control over behaviour.  The brain progressively “implodes” towards sub-cortical, compulsive and […]

A Critique Of the Stress Model

  Theoretical challenges to the negative reinforcement model   The preoccupation-anticipation phase, seen as one of dopaminergic positive reinforcement, can be critiqued in terms of a “premorbid allostasis” – although clinical and epidemiological studies suggests a dose-dependent relationship between accumulated lifetime adversity and addiction risk (8, 37-40) and […]

Stress Based Model of Addiction

  Negative Reinforcement Whereas positive reinforcement occurs when presentation of a drug increases the probability of a response to obtain the drug, negative reinforcement occurs with alleviation of an existing aversive state or alleviation of a drug-generated aversive state (e.g., withdrawal).   Negative reinforcement models (17, 18) centre […]

A Critique of the Dopamine Model

  Theoretical challenges to positive reinforcement models:-   Lack of evidence for increased brain levels of dopamine in the addiction cycle – the increase in dopamine receptors, that the IS model proposes, is not demonstrated in human studies which demonstrate down-regulation of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system in alcohol, […]

A Dopamine Model of Addiction

There are two main dopamine models of addiction. 1. one that says dopamine increases in the addiction cycle leading to a “pathological wanting” 2. That dopamine decreases so that addicted people are seeking more dopamine. As you can see these two models are diametrically opposing and seemingly irreconcilable. 1. […]

A New Addiction Research Agenda

  In the next few weeks we will be asking and attempting to give answers to the following questions 1. What is addictive behaviour? 2. How is it defined? 3. What are the neurobiological models of addiction – dopaminergic positive reinforcement models, stress based negative reinforcement models and thirdly […]

Healing Within the Blur

Engaging the unconscious in everyday life with Chuck Bender

The Godly Chic Diaries


The happy Quitter!

It started when I gave up smoking and went from there!

Healing Self

An easier way to live with acceptance, compassion, and transformational self healing.

Making it write

mostly poetry, partly peculiar.

Andrea's Insight

Mostly addiction and recovery stuff

Recovery river

Practical Lessons for Everyday Life

Progress Not Perfection

This blog is about my journey towards a life grounded in balance, gratitude, creativity, and love.

Get Your Head On Straight.


The Courage To Shift is my Life Coach business that focuses on moving the client from victim, to VICTOR, regardless of their personal goals! Is there anything in life that you would like more of?

Mast Cells & Collagen Behaving Badly

My journey with Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome, M.E. & Mast Cell Disease


never judge a girl by her weight


Heal the past. Free the present. Bless the future.


tackling the teen life

Espiritu en Fuego/A Fiery Spirit

Espiritu en Fuego -- A Fiery Spirit Expressing Herself

tired of treading water

Ditching the drink and waking up

Musings of a Progressive...

Transmissions from the heart, because in the end, we're all just walking each other home.